Can you Help us Help You?

(Please Click Above to Donate)

Diagnosis For All - Promoting a New Era in Diagnosis through
Advanced Scanning and Computer Imaging

About Us | Donate | Cancer/Breast Cancer | Imaging & Children | Womens Section | Dictionary | Links | Contact Us

Dictionary

(Please click on blue terms for more information and purple links for further explanation from external websites)

3D colour imaging – 3D (three dimensional) imaging, is provided by advanced computer technology and shows the body and problems with it clearly and in depth. It also allows these same images to be viewed from any angle, individually or as movies.

(Click here to return to text)


Ablation/Ablating – the name of a procedure (surgical or otherwise) which removes part of the body.
(Click here to return to text)


Adenomyosis – the name for a condition in which the lining of the womb (the endometrium) embeds (grows into) the inner layer of the muscle of the womb/uterus. (This can be in a small area or throughout).

Any endometrium embedded in the womb/uterine muscle can cause pain throughout the monthly cycle, however in menstruation (having a period) the endometrium swells (up to 10 times its normal size within a few days) and bleeds. At this time endometrium in the uterine muscle swells and bleeds, and because it has no natural outlet, this swelling and bleeding can cause pain which can range from mild to excruciating.

Adenomyosis can prevent conception and the following are common symptoms,
  • Enlargement of the uterus
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Very heavy and lengthy monthly periods sometimes with blood clots
  • Contractions at menstruation (having a period)
  • Irregular bleeding
  • Pressure on the bowel which can lead to other conditions e.g. bloating, constipation
  • Pressure on the bladder which can lead to other conditions e.g. incontinence, inability to empty the bladder, constant need to urinate.
  • An enlarged abdomen
  • Fatigue

MRI can show if Adenomyosis is present and with the addition of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, currently offers the only alternative treatment to surgery in cases where this is required.

As regards the symptoms of Adenomyosis these are similar to those of Uterine Fibroids and in both cases MRI can show if Adenomyosis or Uterine Fibroids are present as the cause of any of the above problems.

Unfortunately and at present MRI is not routinely offered for diagnosis which results in many women having hysterectomies as the only solution to alleviate their pain, following which pathology reveals adenomyosis in 15% of removed wombs.

 
(Click here to return to text)


Breast Cancer Breast cancer is currently the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the 15-54 age group. At present detection primarily relies upon breast self examination, clinical physical examination and mammography. (Mammography subjects a patient to radiation exposure). Treatment is commonly surgery.

See Cancer for more information

 (Click here to return to text)


Bowel The Bowel is also known as the colon and large intestine

Front View of the Body

(Click here to return to text)


Cancer – The cells of the body normally divide and multiply daily (but for reasons that are not fully understood) this division and multiplication is controlled. Cancer occurs when cells of the body became abnormal and start to divide and multiply without control, forming a swelling (lump). These abnormal cells can also migrate around the body and grow in other areas forming swellings (lumps). This is known as malignant cancer. Note: For further explanation and information on cancer and on types of cancers which do not form a swelling (lump) and their treatment, e.g. leukaemia, please see the Cancer Research UK website.

There are other types of swellings (lumps) that can form due to cells becoming abnormal. These are referred to as tumours or non-cancerous (benign) conditions for two main reasons, 1) these swellings (lumps) are localised to the area of their initial growth and cells from them do not migrate around the body and 2) they are generally not life threatening (however, they may affect the normal function of the organs in which they grow or organs in their proximity e.g. Uterine Fibroids).

(Click here to return to text)


Complementary Therapy Complementary Therapy websites have much information on problems associated with the intestine and bowel (the bowel is also known as the colon and large intestine).   You could try looking at Colonic Irrigation/Hydrotherapy, Holistic Centres, Massage, for further information (Click on link for example)  (Click here to return to text)


Constipation – A condition in which dry, hard faeces (stools) are formed that are difficult and sometimes painful to pass. Constipation is a symptom of an underlying disorder which needs to be identified and corrected.

Any condition which causes pressure, misalignment, blockages or restrictions of the bowel can cause constipation, e.g. Uterine Fibroids, Adenomyosis, Adhesions, and conditions associated with pregnancy and childbirth (please see Women’s Section for further information)

As water is absorbed into the body from the bowel any condition which prevents the normal and timely passage (and evacuation) of the bowel contents can result in hard dry faeces being formed.  For example, Rectoceles can cause difficult or incomplete evacuation and any residue of faeces left in the bowel will have water absorbed from it, causing dry, hard faeces to be formed.

Apart from the few examples given above, and as there can be other causes of constipation, e.g. diet, lack of fibre, dehydration, lack of exercise, and hereditary traits, the underlying cause of the disorder needs to be identified. If constipation is due to a body malfunction State-of-the-Art systems can show its cause.  (Click here to return to text)


Contrast Agent – A substance injected into the bloodstream, that can show for example, blood flow during an MRI.
(Click here to return to text)


CT – Computed Tomography – (also known as CAT - Computed Axial Tomography). This is a type of scan which provides good images of the body and problems with it, but also gives a radiation dose. The National Academy of Sciences has said there is no safe level of radiation dose and further their researchers said their results indicate that 1 in every 1000 people would develop cancer from a radiation dose of 10 millisievert (mSv) , the average radiation dose in a single whole-body CT scan. (Click here to return to text)


Cystocele – The name for a condition where the bladder can expand into the vaginal space. This can cause a kink or twist in the urethra (the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the exit of the body). Some cystoceles cause urine leakage when the bladder is fuller, or when coughing, sneezing, laughing or lifting a heavy object etc. Conversely, a cystocele may cause difficulty in passing urine and/or inability to completely empty the bladder. In summary cystoceles can cause involuntary urination or difficulty in urination.

Diagram of a Bladder in Normal Position Diagram of a Bladder in an Abnormal Position
(Side View) (Cystocele)  (Side View)

 (Click here to return to text)


Endometriosis – a condition in which fragments of the lining of the womb (the endometrium) embed in other parts of the body where they should not be. A common place is the ovaries, but fragments can embed in the intestinal wall, bladder, rectum and other locations.

Endometriosis can cause pain throughout the monthly cycle, however in menstruation (having a period), the endometrium swells (up to 10 times its normal size within a few days) and bleeds. At this time any fragments of endometrium embedded in parts of the body where they should not be also swell and bleed, causing pain which can range from mild to excruciating.

Endometriosis can prevent conception and the following are common symptoms,

  • Pain in the abdomen e.g. the ovaries, intestine, bladder, rectum, or some or all these locations and others, depending where the fragments have embedded.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Very heavy and lengthy monthly periods sometimes with blood clots
  • Irregular bleeding
  • Lower back ache and pain during urination and bowel movement, especially when having a period
  • Contractions at menstruation (having a period)
  • An enlarged abdomen
  • Fatigue 

MRI can show the location of the fragments and with the addition of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound system can treat it, provided that the fragments proximity to other organs or structures, e.g. major nerves, does not prevent this.

(Note: Adenomyosis is a similar condition to Endometriosis, however in Adenomyosis the Endometrium embeds (grows into) the inner layer womb/uterine muscle. See Adenomyosis for more information.
(Click here to return to text)


Endometrium The endometrium is lining of the womb/uterus which is normally shed on monthly basis – having a period.  (Having a period is called menstruation). (Click here to return to text)


Enterocele a condition where part of the intestine bulges into the upper vagina or into other areas of the pelvis.  If this causes a twist or constriction in the intestine this can cause problems with the passage of contents. Other problems can then arise, e.g. inflammation and/or distension, bloating (swelling) and/or there can be blockages which are intermittent or permanent. Any of these conditions can cause pain which can range from mild to excruciating.

Diagram of a pelvic and vaginal enterocele

Normal Support By Muscles   Abnormal Support By Muscles
(Front View)   (Front View)
 

(Click here to return to text)


Hernia – a term used to describe a condition when a part of the body protrudes into another area where it should not be.
Click here to return to text)


High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ultrasound is the name of equipment that produces many types of sound which can be used for imaging and/or treatment. It has many medical applications. In High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, heated (intensified) beams of sound are focused onto diseased tissue, such as cancer and heat it to a point where it is removed.

A way of explaining how this works is like using a magnifying glass on a sunny day and focusing beams of sunlight onto a piece of wood. The beams burn a hole in the wood at their focal point. However, the surrounding wood is not affected. This is how High Intensity Focused Ultrasound works; heated (intensified) beams of sound are focused onto unwanted tissue, and burn it away without harming the surrounding areas. (The medical term for destroying or removing tissue is called Ablation/Ablating).


Diagram of How High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Works

Video of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablating a Breast Cancer

breastb

A transducer is a piece of equipment that converts electrical energy into Ultrasound energy.

mri

Click on above image for animation video

The clinically reported benefits of using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound are:-
There is no surgery, so there is no disfiguring scar tissue.
In most cases no anaesthetic is needed as the treatment is not painful enough to require it.
There have been no occurrences of Metastases.
There is no need for follow up treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
It is also used to treat cancers of the liver, kidney, pancreas, prostate, testes and brain.
There is no radiation exposure such as X-ray so no chance of cancer developing from this.
Cancers can be treated which have spread to other parts of the body.

(Click here to return to text)


Levator Ani Muscle (Levator means lifting and ani means anus).  The levator ani muscle provides lift and support to the anus, rectum, uterus/womb, vagina and bladder.
(Click here to return to text)


Metastases the name for a condition where cancerous cells migrate from their original position to other parts of the body (where cancer then develops - known as malignant cancer).  The cells can be carried via the bloodstream. When a cancer is removed surgically, the chances of cancerous cells migrating are higher, as during surgery blood vessels are damaged, (which allows cancerous cells to enter the bloodstream).
(Click here to return to text)


MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging - An MRI scanner passes a magnetic field through a person’s body and this causes a type of vibration (resonance). As a result an image of their body and problems with it are produced. It is a painless, safe imaging system (which involves no radiation exposure) and there are no harmful effects ever recorded of this procedure. Advanced computer technology can enhance the images produced, e.g. show them in 3D colour.

 

 (Click here to return to text)


Obstruction – a term for a blockage in the intestine and/or colon that can have many causes. Although anyone can get an obstruction there are three types which are more common in children.

State-of-the-Art systems can identify the location of a blockage and its cause. For example, if part of the intestine becomes inflamed it can cease to function.  Contents can then build up in the area preventing the passage of contents behind it.  This can cause swelling (distension), bloating and further inflammation.   

Swelling (distension) bloating and inflammation of the intestine and/or bowel can cause pain which can range from mild to excruciating.
(Click here to return to text)


Prostate Cancer A cancer of the Prostate Gland. At present the treatment of this type of cancer (using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) is done in the UK via a rectal probe. The probe images the cancer and also delivers the high intensity focused ultrasound beam to ablate (remove) the cancer (there is no investigative surgery after treatment). High Intensity Focused Ultrasound is not always recommended in the first instance but is used for the treatment of prostate cancer that has come back after other treatments have failed e.g. radiotherapy, surgery (this is sometimes called salvage treatment). (Click on - www.hifu-planet.co.uk and http://www.ukhifu.co.uk - for websites which provide information on centres which use High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for prostate cancer treatment).
(Click here to return to text)


Pubococcygeus – A muscle which is joined to the pubic bone at the front of the body and to the coccyx (end of the spine) at the back, forming a kind of sling between the two.
(Click here to return to text)


Radiation and Cancer

Medical Textbooks advice to Clinicians is:-

….as the major adverse effects of radiation exposure are the induction of cancer and genetic problems and because all radiation is harmful and as there is no safe lower threshold of radiation use alternative techniques such MRI and Ultrasound which do not involve radiation exposure…… all radiologists and referring clinicians must strive, a) to keep the radiation to the patient as low as achievable, b) to use up to date equipment c) use alternative techniques such MRI and Ultrasound which do not involve radiation exposure…

The National Academy of Sciences states, there is no safe level of radiation dose. Their researchers said their results indicate that 1 in every 1000 people would develop cancer from a radiation dose of 10 millisievert (mSv), which is the average radiation dose in a single whole-body CT scan.

Note: Most of the ionising radiation received by humans is from X-ray and CT, and imaging on these systems accounts for about 12% of radiation exposure that humans will receive during their lifetimes.  Other sources such as sunlight and nuclear fallout, e.g. as the result Chernobyl, account for about only 1%. (Click here to return to text)


Rectocele – the name for a condition in which the end of the bowel (the rectum) can expand into the vaginal space or other areas of the lower pelvis. Rectoceles frequently cause difficulty in evacuating (passing a stool) and can also cause painful intercourse. Several types are documented and some examples follow.

A Side View of a Normal Vagina and Rectum

(Side View)

The rectum can expand into the back of the vagina, (known as an anterior (front) rectocele).

(Side View)

The rectum can expand toward the back of the back of the body (known as a posterior (back) rectocele).

(Side View)

The rectum can expand to toward the front and/or back and/or sides of the pelvis, (no name is given to this condition).

(Side View)

   
Example of  Normal Rectum Front View Example of Abnormal Rectum Front View

(Front View)

(Front View)

Perhaps an analogy is if you have a rectocele when trying to evacuate it is like trying to pass a champagne cork rather than a wine cork.

(Side View)

Many women have to place a piece of toilet paper over their finger and start the evacuation process manually or they cannot evacuate.  Others have to put their fingers into their vagina and press upon the rectum through the back of vagina wall to evacuate.  Rectoceles frequently go undiagnosed.

Difficulty in evacuating can leave a residue of faecal matter (stools) in the bowel and other problems can arise from this, e.g. inflammation, distension, bloating, the symptoms of which are often attributed to irritable bowel syndrome.   Residue of faecal matter can become dry and hard (as water is absorbed back into the body from the bowel) and therefore dry and/or hard stools are formed, which are often attributed to the condition of being ‘constipated’.

Please click on the following link (Complementary Therapy) for further information.
(Click here to return to text)


Ultrasound the name of equipment that produces many types of sound which can be used for imaging and/or treatment. It has many medical applications. For example, a Foetal Ultrasound produces images of a baby in the womb.  A Doppler Ultrasound is used to see if blood is flowing as it should, e.g. there are no restrictions in blood vessels. It can be used to break up Ureter/Kidney Stones without surgery and without disturbing surrounding tissue. (Advanced computer technology can enhance the images produced, e.g. show them in 3D colour).
(Click here to return to text)


Uterine Fibroids – Are non-cancerous (benign) growths in the womb or the womb wall.  They are also referred to as myomas, leiomyomas, fibromyomas, fibromas, myofibromas and leiomyomata.

Uterine Fibroids can prevent conception and can cause pain which can range from mild to excruciating. The following are common symptoms

  • Enlargement of the uterus

  • Pain in the abdomen

  • Pain during sexual intercourse

  • Very heavy and lengthy monthly periods sometimes with blood clots

  • Irregular Bleeding

  • Pressure on the bowel which can lead to other conditions e.g. bloating, constipation

  • Pressure on the bladder which can lead to other conditions e.g. incontinence, inability to empty the bladder, constant need to urinate.

  • An enlarged abdomen

  • Fatigue

MRI can show if Uterine Fibroids are present and with the addition of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, currently offers the only alternative treatment to surgery in cases where this is required.

(Please Note: Some types of Uterine Fibroids cannot be treated with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, e.g. when they have grown outside of the uterus (Pendunculated) and their proximity to other organs or structures, e.g. major nerves, prevents this).

As regards the symptoms of Uterine Fibroids these are similar to those of Adenomyosis and in both cases MRI can show if Uterine Fibroids or Adenomyosis are present as the cause of any of the above problems.

Unfortunately and at present MRI is not routinely offered for diagnosis which results in many women having hysterectomies as the only solution to alleviate their pain.

Fibroids are classified according to their location. Below are the 4 primary types of fibroids.

  • Subserosal - Fibroids developing in the outer portion of the uterus which continue to grow outwards.
  • Intramural - Fibroids developing within the uterine wall. (These are the most common)
  • Submucosal - Fibroids developing just under the lining of the uterine cavity.
  • Pedunculated - Fibroids developing on a small stalk that connects them to the inner or outer wall of the uterus.

(Front View of Womb Showing Examples of locations of Uterine Fibroids)

 (Click here to return to text)


Uterus – The Uterus is also called the Womb. (Click here to return to text)


Uretera tube through which urine passes from the kidney to the bladder, a Stone in which can cause extreme pain in itself and can also cause kidney malfunction if the Stone prevents urine from passing from the kidney to the bladder. (Click here to return to text)


Womb – The Womb is also called the Uterus.

Front view of body

(Click here to return to text)


X-rays – All X-rays expose a patient to radiation.

Medical Textbooks advice to Clinicians is:-

….as the major adverse effects of radiation exposure are the induction of cancer and genetic problems and because all radiation is harmful and as there is no safe lower threshold of radiation use alternative techniques such MRI and Ultrasound which do not involve radiation exposure…… all radiologists and referring clinicians must strive, a) to keep the radiation to the patient as low as achievable, b) to use up to date equipment c) use alternative techniques such MRI and Ultrasound which do not involve radiation exposure…

The National Academy of Sciences states, there is no safe level of radiation dose. Their researchers said their results indicate that 1 in every 1000 people would develop cancer from a radiation dose of 10 millisievert (mSv), which is the average radiation dose in a single whole-body CT scan.

Note: Most of the ionising radiation received by humans is from X-ray and CT, and imaging on these systems accounts for about 12% of radiation exposure that humans will receive during their lifetimes.  Other sources such as sunlight and nuclear fallout, e.g. as the result Chernobyl, account for about only 1%. (Click here to return to text)


<Previous